Herbert Simon's 3 phases of problem solving:

Intelligence: Creating a Problen
Troubles can only be endured; Problems can be solved

Diagnose a disturbance, Scope out n opportunity

Thinking inside or outside the box both require a box!
            Qualitative/Logical Boxes
            Quantitative/Statistical Boxes

Design:  Creating Conflict and Indecision
    Creating alternatives alone or in groups
            Creativity Tools
            Screening Tools
            Structuring Tools

Choice:  Eliminating Options
    Voting & Social Choice
    Statistical Decision Analysis
    Decision Support Systems
        Monte Carlo Simulation